VIII SS T1 Rural Life and Society Textbook Solutions


Rural Life and Society



I Choose the correct answer 

1. Which system was called by different names like Jagirdari, Malguzari and Biswedari etc.? a) Mahalwari b) Ryotwari c) Zamindari d) None of these 

Ans: d) None of these

2. Under which Governor General did the permanent settlement implemented in Bengal. a) Lord Hastings b) Lord Cornwallis c) Lord Wellesley d) Lord Minto 

Ans: b) Lord Cornwallis

3. What was the Mahal in the Mahalwari system? a) House b) Land c) Village d) Palace

Ans: c) Village

4. In which region was the Mahalwari system imposed? a) Maharashtra b) Madras c) Bengal d) Punjab 

Ans: d) Punjab 

5. Who among the following Governors introduced Mahalwari system? a) Lord Hastings b) Lord Cornwallis c) Lord Wellesley d) Lord William Bentinck 

Ans: d) Lord William Bentinck

6. In which region was the Ryotwari system not introduce by the British? a) Bombay b) Madras c) Bengal d) None of these 


7. The Indigo revolt was led by whom? a) Mahatma Gandhi b)Keshab Chandra Roy c) DigambarBiswas and BishnuBiswas d) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 

Ans: c) DigambarBiswas and BishnuBiswas

8. The Bardoli Satyagraha was led by whom? a) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel b) Mahatma Gandhi c) DigambarBiswas d)Keshab Chandra Roy 

Ans: a) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

II Fill in the Blanks 

1. Mahalwari system is the modified version of the Zamindari system. 

2. The Mahalwari system was a Brain child of Holt Mackenzie

3. Indigo Revolt took place in Bengal

4. Moplah Rebellion was held in  Malabar (Kerala)

5. The Champaran Agrarian Act was passed in May 1918

III Match the following 

Permanent Settlement


Mahalwari Settlement

North west province 

Ryotwari System


Nil Darban

Misery of the Indigo cultivators

Santhal Rebellion

First Peasant revolt

IV State true or false 

1. Warren Hastings introduced quinquennial land settlement. 


2. Ryotwari system was introduced by Thomas Munro. 


3. Pabna revolt originated in the Yusufshahi pargana in Gujarat. 


4. The Punjab land alienation Act was passed in 1918. 


V Consider the following statement and tick (✓) the appropriate answer 

1. Which of the following statement is not true about Zamindari system? 

(a) This settlement was introduced in 1793. 

(b) The Zamindars became the owner of the land. 

(c) This system secured a fixed a stable income for the cultivators. 

(d) This practice was applicable to the area of 19% of India. 

Ans: (c) This system secured a fixed a stable income for the cultivators.

2. Which of the following statement is correct about Peasants revolt in India? 

(a) The Santhal rebellion was held in Bengal. 

(b) Dinabandhu Mitra wrote a drama called Nil Darban. 

(c) The Deccan riots started from a village at Pune in 1873. 

(d) The Moplah peasants rebellion was held in Tamil Nadu. 

Ans: (b) Dinabandhu Mitra wrote a drama called Nil Darban. 

VI Answer the following in one or two sentences 

1. List out any two salient features of the Permanent settlement? 

  • The Zamindars were recognised as the owners of land as long as they paid the revenue to the East India Company regularly. 

  • The Zamindars acted as the agent of the Government for the collection of revenue from the cultivators

2. What were the salient features of the Ryotwari system? 

  • Revenue settlement was done directly with the ryots. 

  • Measurement of field and an estimate of produce was calculated.

3. Bring out the effects of the Mahalwari settlement. 

  • The Lambardar enjoyed privileges which was misused for their self-interest. 

  • This system brought no benefit to the cultivators. 

  • It was a modified version of the Zamindari system and benefited the upper class in villages

4. What was the cause of Indigo Revolt in 1859 – 60? 

  • The European indigo planters compelled the tenant farmers to grow indigo at terms highly disadvantageous to the farmers. 

  • The tenant farmer was forced to sell it cheap to the planter and accepted advances from the planter that benefitted the latter.

5. What was the contribution of Mahatma Gandhi on Champaran Satyagraha. 

  • Under the Tinkathia system in Champaran, the peasants were bound by law to grow indigo on 3/20 part of their land and send the same to the British planters at prices fixed by them. 

  • They were liable to unlawful extortion and oppression by the planters. Mahatma Gandhi took up their cause. 

  • The Government appointed an enquiry commission of which Mahatma Gandhi was a member. 

  • The grievances of the peasants were enquired and ultimately the Champaran Agrarian Act was passed in May 1918.

6. Mention the role of Vallabhai Patel in Bardoli Satyagraha. 

In 1928, the peasants of Bardoli (Gujarat) started their agitation under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, in protest against the government’s proposal to increase land revenue by 30 percent. The peasants refused to pay tax at the enhanced rate and started a no-tax campaign from 12 February 1928. Many women also participated in this campaign.

VII Answer the following in detail 

1. Discuss the merits and demerits of the Permanent settlement. 


  • Under this system many of the waste lands and forests became cultivable lands. 

  • The Zamindars became the owner of the land. 

  • The Zamindars were made free from the responsibility of providing justice. 

  • The Zamindars remained faithful to the British Government. 

  • This system secured a fixed and stable income for the British Government.


  • The British Government had no direct contact with the cultivators. 

  • The rights of the cultivators were ignored and they were left at the mercy of the Zamindars. 

  • The peasants were almost treated as serfs.

  • This system made the Zamindars lethargic and luxurious. 

  • Many conflicts between the Zamindars and the peasants arose in rural Bengal.

2. What were the impacts of the British Land Revenue system on the cultivators? 

  • A common feature of all the settlements was the assessment and the maximize income from land. It resulted in increasing land sales and dispossession.

  • The Zamindars, money-lenders and lawyers exploited the poor peasants.

  • The stability and continuity of the Indian villages was shaken. 

  • Cottage industries disappeared on account of the import of British goods and the peasants had nothing to supplement their income. 

  • The old body of custom was replaced by new apparatus of law, courts, fees, lawyers and formal procedures

3. Write a paragraph about the Moplah Rebellion? 

  • The Muslim Moplah (or Moplah) peasants of Malabar (Kerala) was suppressed and exploited by the Hindu zamindars (Jenmis) and British government. This was the main cause of this revolt. 

  • The Moplah

  • This conference supported the tenants’ cause, and demanded legislations for regulating landlord-tenant relations.

  • In August 1921, the Moplah tenants rebelled against the oppressive zamindars. 

  • In the initial phase of the rebellion, the Moplah peasants attacked the police stations, public offices, communications and houses of oppressive landlords and moneylenders. 

  • By December 1921, the government ruthlessly suppressed the Moplah rebellion.

  • According to an official estimate, as a result of government intervention, 2337 Moplah rebels were killed, 1650 wounded and more than 45,000 captured as prisoners. 


Apart from the exploitation through taxes, how did the British further exploit the land?

Apart from the taxes, the British followed the policy of commercialization of Agriculture which was a major setback for Indian farmers. They were forced to grow the soil fertility deteriorating cash crops such as opium. Jute, Indigo etc., Agricultural prices shot up by 31%. They were threatened if they failed to grow these crops.

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